Math Tables:

Trig Function Topics
the functions
unit modes - degree, radian, grad
labeling sides - opposite, adjacent, hypotenuse
Trig Functions: Unit Modes

The trig functions evaluate differently depending on the units on q. For example, sin(90°) = 1, while sin(90)=0.89399.... If there is a degree sign after the angle, the trig function evaluates its parameter as a degree measurement. If there is no unit after the angle, the trig function evaluates its parameter as a radian measurement. This is because radian measurements are considered to be the "natural" measurements for angles. (Calculus gives us a justification for this. A parital explaination comes from the formula for the area of a circle sector, which is simplest when the angle is in radians).

Calculator note: Many calculators have degree, radian, and grad modes (360° = 2p rad = 400 grad). It is important to have the calculator in the right mode since that mode setting tells the calculator which units to assume for angles when evaluating any of the trigonometric functions. For example, if the calculator is in degree mode, evaluating sine of 90 results in 1. However, the calculator returns 0.89399... when in radian mode. Having the calculator in the wrong mode is a common mistake for beginners, especially those that are only familiar with degree angle measurements.

For those who wish to reconcile the various trig functions that depend on the units used, we can define the degree symbol (°) to be the value (PI/180). Therefore, sin(90°), for example, is really just an expression for the sine of a radian measurement when the parameter is fully evaluated. As a demonstration, sin(90°) = sin(90(PI/180)) = sin(PI/2). In this way, we only need to tabulate the "natural" radian version of the sine function. (This method is similar to defining percent % = (1/100) in order to relate percents to ratios, such as 50% = 50(1/100) = 1/2.)