## Basic Operations

## Complex Definitions of Functions and Operations

(sum of squares)

(DeMoivre's Theorem)

if

then there are n complex nth roots (z) of w for k=0,1,..n-1

\[z(k) = r^{1/n} [ \cos \frac{\theta + 2 \pi k}{n} + i \sin \frac{\theta + 2 \pi k}{n} ]\]